**Ancient Mathematicians**

**6th Century BCE**

**Thales of Miletus:** Considered the first mathematician in history, Thales predicted solar eclipses, introduced mathematical deductive reasoning, and made significant contributions to geometry and algebra.

**4th Century BCE**

**Euclid:** Dubbed the "Father of Geometry," Euclid compiled and refined definitions, postulates, and mathematical proofs in his landmark book, "Elements." This work remains a foundational text in mathematics.

**3rd Century BCE**

**Archimedes:** Known for his profound impact on geometry, calculus, and mechanics, Archimedes devised the law of the lever, the principle of buoyancy, and a precise approximation of pi.

**Apollonius of Perga:** His eight-volume work, "Conics," named and defined the ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola â€” the three types of conic sections.

**Eratosthenes:** A polymath who calculated Earth's circumference with remarkable accuracy, Eratosthenes also devised the "Sieve of Eratosthenes" for finding prime numbers, contributing significantly to number theory.

**Medieval Mathematicians**

**9th Century**

**Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi:** Al-Khwarizmi is heralded as the father of algebra, developing methods to solve linear and quadratic equations, and introduced the concept of the algorithm, which forms the backbone of modern computing.

**10th Century**

**Al-Karaji:** He made notable advancements in algebra, especially in polynomial equations, and introduced the theory of binomial coefficients.

**11th Century**

**Omar Khayyam: **Renowned for his poetry, Khayyam also made significant advances in algebraic equations, developed geometric techniques for solving cubic equations, and contributed to calendar reform.

**12th Century**

**Fibonacci:** This Italian mathematician introduced the Fibonacci sequence to the Western world and popularized the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in Europe, revolutionizing arithmetic.

**13th Century**

**Nasir al-Din al-Tusi: **An astronomer and mathematician, al-Tusi made important contributions to trigonometry and introduced the Tusi couple, a mathematical device in spherical astronomy.

**Renaissance Mathematicians**

**15th Century **

**Leon Battista Alberti: **A true Renaissance man, Alberti developed the field of perspective, crucial in art and design, and made contributions to cryptography.

**16th Century**

**Nicolaus Copernicus:** While not primarily a mathematician, Copernicus used his mathematical knowledge to propose the heliocentric model of the solar system, leading to a revolution in astronomy.

**FranÃ§ois ViÃ¨te: **He introduced algebraic notation, replacing rhetorical algebra with symbolic algebra, and made significant contributions to algebra and trigonometry.

**John Napier: **Known for inventing logarithms, Napier introduced the concept of Napier's bones for multiplication and division, simplifying these computations.

**17th Century Mathematicians**

**Johannes Kepler:** Known for his laws of planetary motion, Kepler also made advancements in optics and the geometry of shapes.

**Pierre de Fermat: **He formulated Fermat's Last Theorem, a seemingly simple statement that defied proof for centuries, and made significant contributions to number theory.

**Blaise Pascal: **Pascal pioneered probability theory, crucial in statistics and computer science, and developed Pascal's triangle, a number array fundamental to combinatorics.

**Isaac Newton: **He developed calculus, laws of motion, and universal gravitation, laying the foundation of classical physics. Newton's method for estimating roots of a function is still widely used.

**Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz:** He independently developed calculus and made vital contributions to the binary system notation, the foundation of digital computing.

**18th Century Mathematicians**

**Leonhard Euler: **Euler made significant contributions to almost every area of mathematics, from calculus, number theory, and geometry, to pioneering graph theory.

**Joseph-Louis Lagrange:** He contributed to mathematical analysis, number theory, celestial mechanics, and played a key role in the development of the metric system.

**Carl Friedrich Gauss: **Known as the "Prince of Mathematicians," Gauss contributed to fields as varied as number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics.

**Pierre-Simon Laplace:** He made significant contributions to celestial mechanics, probability theory, and was instrumental in establishing the decimal metric system in France.

**19th Century Mathematicians**

**Carl Gustav Jacobi:** He made significant advances in elliptic functions, differential equations, and number theory.

**Augustin-Louis Cauchy:** Cauchy pioneered rigorous mathematical analysis, and his research formed the foundation for the theories of functions of a real variable, complex analysis, and elasticity.

**Niels Henrik Abel:** He proved the impossibility of solving quintic equations by radicals, laying the groundwork for group theory.

**Ã‰variste Galois: **Despite dying young, Galois developed Galois theory, a fundamental branch of abstract algebra, and introduced the concept of groups in mathematics.

**Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann: **He made groundbreaking contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry, with concepts like Riemann surfaces, Riemannian geometry, and the Riemann Hypothesis bearing his name.

**20th Century Mathematicians**

**David Hilbert:** Hilbert played a crucial role in the development of mathematical logic and formalized axiomatic systems, addressing foundational issues in mathematics.

**Georg Cantor:** He introduced set theory, establishing a consistent way to talk about infinite sets and developed the concept of infinite cardinality.

**Emmy Noether:** Considered the mother of modern algebra, Noether developed theories of rings, fields, and algebras, and made fundamental contributions to algebraic geometry.

**Alan Turing:** A pioneer of computer science and artificial intelligence, Turing conceptualized the universal Turing machine, forming the basis of modern computing.

**John von Neumann:** A polymath who contributed to game theory, quantum mechanics, computer science, statistics, and economics, von Neumann was instrumental in the development of the modern computer.

**21st Century Mathematicians**

**Grigori Perelman: **This reclusive mathematician solved the PoincarÃ© conjecture, one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems.

**Maryam Mirzakhani: **The first and to-date only female Fields Medalist, Mirzakhani made profound contributions to the understanding of the symmetry of curved surfaces and complex geometric shapes.

**Terence Tao: **Tao has made significant contributions to harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, combinatorics, and prime numbers.

**Peter Scholze:** Known for his work in algebraic geometry, Scholze developed perfectoid spaces, a class of algebraic structures with deep connections to number theory.

From the geometric foundations laid by ancient Greeks to the frontiers of abstract algebra and computation, these mathematicians have shaped the way we understand and interact with the world. Their legacies are an inspiring testament to human curiosity, creativity, and problem-solving prowess.

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